Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Genetics of Contact Lens-Related and Non-Contact Lens-Related Infectious Keratitis

Infectious keratitis is a rare but severe condition associated with a range of ocular and systemic predisposing conditions, including ocular trauma, prior surgery, surface disease, and contact lens (CL) wear. This review explores the epidemiology of infectious keratitis, specifically the differences in disease incidence and risk factors, causative organism profile and virulence characteristics and host microbiome, genetics, gene expression, proteomics, and metabolomic characteristics in CL-related and non-CL-related diseases. Differences exist in the epidemiology, demographics, causative organisms, and their virulence characteristics in CL-related and non-CL-related diseases, and there is less evidence to support differences between these groups of individuals in the ocular surface microbiome, genetics, and pathways of disease.
Genetic variations, however, in the host immune profile are implicated in both the onset and severity of infectious keratitis in CL and non-CL wearers. As technologies in metabolomics, proteomics, and genomics improved to be better able to process small-volume samples from the ocular surface, there will be improved understanding of the interplay between the CL, ocular surface, host immune profile, and the microbial environment. This may result in a more personalized approach in the management of disease to reduce disease severity.

Microbiology and antimicrobial sensitivity of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt infections in a referral Pediatric Neurosurgery ward during a period of 7 years

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern in children with ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt infections.
Methods: A retrospective investigation was conducted from March 2011 to March 2018 among 163 children, who were admitted because of VP shunt infections in a referral educational hospital in Isfahan, Iran.
Results: Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) was the most common organism (49.0%) followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (10.4%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.9%). Susceptibility of Gram positive organisms to different class of antibiotics was as follows: Glycopeptides (82, 96%), Carbapenems (78.38%), Aminoglycosides (57.81%), Fluoroquinolones (50.00%) and Trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole (50%). Gram negative isolates were more susceptible to Aminoglycosides (56.52%) and Fluoroquinolones (52.78%), respectively. Sensitivity of Gram negative bacteria to Fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in infections that occurred in the first month of the shunt implantations compared to infections that were detected afterward (78.95% vs.23.53%, respectively, p value= 0.001).
Conclusion: The highest sensitivity of Gram positive bacteria was to Glycopeptides and Carbapenems. In addition, Gram negative organisms had the best susceptibility to Aminoglycosides and Fluoroquinolones. High level of resistance to studied antibiotics among Gram negative isolates underscores the necessity of including new antibiotics such as Colistin, Fosfomycin, Ceftazidime/avibactam, Ceftolozane/tazobactam and Tigecycline in susceptibility testing and empiric antibiotic therapy for VP shunt infections.

Microbiology Assessments in Critically Ill Patients

  • The prevalence of suspected or proven infections in critically ill patients is high, with a substantial attributable risk to in-hospital mortality. Coordinated guidance and interventions to improve the appropriate microbiological assessment for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions are therefore pivotal. Conventional microbiology follows the paradigm of “best practice” of specimen selection and collection, governed by laboratory processing and standard operating procedures, and informed by the latest developments and trends. In this regard, the preanalytical phase of a microbiological diagnosis is crucial since inadequate sampling may result in the incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate management. In addition, the isolation and detection of contaminants interfere with multiple intensive care unit (ICU) processes, which confound the therapeutic approach to critically ill patients.
  • To facilitate bedside enablement, the microbiology laboratory should provide expedited feedback, reporting, and interpretation of results. Compared with conventional microbiology, novel rapid and panel-based diagnostic strategies have the clear advantages of a rapid turnaround time, the detection of many microorganisms including antimicrobial resistant determinants and thus promise substantial improvements in health care.
  • However, robust data on the clinical evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests in presumed sepsis, sepsis and shock are extremely limited and more rigorous intervention studies, focusing on direct benefits for critically ill patients, are pivotal before widespread adoption of their use through the continuum of ICU stay. Advocating the use of these diagnostics without firmly establishing which patients would benefit most, how to interpret the results, and how to treat according to the results obtained, could in fact be counterproductive with regards to diagnostic “best practice” and antimicrobial stewardship. Thus, for the present, they may supplement but not yet supplant conventional microbiological assessments.

Do Plant Isolates have a Role in Method Suitability and Growth Promotion Testing in the Microbiology Laboratory? Is it a Matter of Science versus Compliance?

In response to regulatory citations for not including plant isolates in method suitability and growth promotion testing of microbiological culture media, the authors make the case that the compendial designated cultures meet the requirements of the official tests and are sufficiently representative of the most frequently identified environmental isolates. It was our conclusion that this compliance request lacks scientific justification.
The scope of this review largely directed to the growth promotion and suitability testing requirements for USP <60>, <61>, <62> and <71>. Other microbiological tests such as USP <51> Antimicrobial Effective Testing, media fill validation, and water and environmental monitoring are discussed.

HiCombat Microbiology Spillage Kit

LA734-1KT EWC Diagnostics 1 unit 65.38 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-1 Glentham Life Sciences 1 122.6 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-100 Glentham Life Sciences 100 23.8 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-100G Glentham Life Sciences 100 g 64.8 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-1KG Glentham Life Sciences 1 kg 184.8 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-250 Glentham Life Sciences 250 39.4 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-250G Glentham Life Sciences 250 g 84 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-500 Glentham Life Sciences 500 68.9 EUR

Agar, low gel strength, suitable for microbiology

GC6234-500G Glentham Life Sciences 500 g 118.8 EUR

DiscoveryProbe? Microbiology & Virology-related Compounds Panel

L1014-5 ApexBio 5 mg/well 6267.6 EUR

BSA Cohn Fraction V (Microbiological Grade)

30-AB80 Fitzgerald 1 kg Ask for price

Fraction V Microbiological grade BSA powder

BAC61-0050 Equitech 50gm 294.38 EUR

Fraction V Microbiological grade BSA powder

BAC61-0100 Equitech 100gm 441.56 EUR

Fraction V Microbiological grade BSA powder

BAC61-0500 Equitech 500gm 637.81 EUR

Fraction V Microbiological grade BSA powder

BAC61-1000 Equitech 1KG 981.25 EUR

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Microbiological Incubator Compact 18L - EACH

INC2320 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 1267.65 EUR


WHA10445894 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 93.15 EUR


7500805-100G Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1G 198.86 EUR


7500805-10G Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1G 80.27 EUR


7500805-1KG Lampire Biologicals Laboratories 1KG 863.56 EUR


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Bovine Serum Albumin Cohn Fraction V Microbiological Grade

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SafeFAST Elite 212 Class II Type B2 Microbiological Safety Cabinet - EACH

CAB1414 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 27898.39 EUR

SafeFAST Classic 209 D Class II Microbiological Safety Cabinet - EACH

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CAB1422 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 18962.21 EUR

Microbiological Incubator Advanced 60L Dual Convection - EACH

INC2328 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 3343.95 EUR

Microbiological Incubator Advanced 100L Dual Convection - EACH

INC2330 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH 4450.95 EUR

Effects of Annona muricata extraction on inhibition of polyphenoloxidase and microbiology quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

  • Giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is one of the important aquaculture species and quickly expanding in many countries. High demand and mass commercialization on M. rosenbergii regulating 18% of the international seafood business. Seafood products contend with various level across the supply chains and time to reach the consumers depending upon the marketing and delivery channels after harvesting. Therefore, these may cause biodeterioration such as melanosis (dark pigmentation) and microbial changes that limit the shelf life.
  • This studies reveal the antioxidant properties from Annona muricata leaves extract and their effectiveness in inhibiting the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity and delaying the bacterial accumulation during 20 days of chilled storage. Five metabolites including coumarins, flavonoid, glycoside, terpenoids and steroid compound were found in A. muricata leaves extract. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content of A. muricata were recorded at 191.24 ± 0.03 mgGAEg-1 and 1777.48 ± 1.08 mgQEg-1, respectively. Sixteen percent (16%) of A. muricata leaf extract effectively inhibit 82.41% PPO.
  • Furthermore, 15% of A. muricata leaves extracts showed a significant reduced (p < 0.05) in total bacteria count during 20 days of chilled storage of M. rosenbergii. These conclude that the present of listed secondary metabolites and at approximately ~ 15-16% of A. muricata leaves extracts were effectively inhibiting the melanosis and prolong the shelf life for up to 8 days of M. rosenbergii stored at chilled condition. Therefore, A. muricata leaves extract is potential used as natural preservative agent in obtaining high quality seafood products.

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